ACh surplus theory:
If we assume that long-haulers have excessive acetylcholine (ACh) levels, this may lead to a state of sympathetic dominance. High ACh levels can increase glutamate levels, resulting in glutamate excitotoxicity, which manifests as an inability to calm down.
Elevated ACh levels can also cause endothelial dysfunction by reducing the effects of catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). The use of antihistamines and antidepressants, which have anti-acetylcholinergic properties, could provide temporary relief for some individuals, as they inhibit ACh release and NMDA receptor activity. However, the effects may wear off once the medication is discontinued, indicating a need for a more sustainable solution.
Magnesium's role in modulating vitamin D release and utilization can help regulate ACh levels in the body. High-dose vitamin D supplements may provide some relief by decreasing ACh levels, although long-term use could deplete magnesium stores. As magnesium acts on NMDA receptors similarly to antihistamines, it may help balance glutamate and GABA activity, potentially reducing symptoms related to excessive ACh levels.
Magnesium's ability to modulate vitamin D release and utilization, as well as its action on NMDA receptors, might be the driving force behind its potential to alleviate symptoms related to excessive ACh levels in long-haul COVID patients. By addressing the root cause of ACh surplus, magnesium could play a crucial role in restoring balance to the nervous system and reducing symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction and glutamate excitotoxicity.
Nitric oxide depletion
[Mouth breathing accentuates sympathetic nervous system, beacause losing nitric oxide. And sympathetic activation keeps and worsens a lot of long covid symptoms. What else fixes and lowers the tone of the sympathetic system. Obviously deep breathing, meditation, and yoga/mindfulness BUT nothing more documented and more obvious than ketone bodies. There's a reason every single long hauler recovery story involves fasting. Sorry buddy, but you can't keep ignoring this just because you love to stuff your face with food. Even the people who technically didn't fast, recovered through the use of meat and low carb diets. What does carnivore and low-carb diets have in common? They mimic fasting because of ketosis and high ketone levels in the body that stimulate autophagy. Yes, over a year or more you may get healed or be on the way. But you can speed that up with water fasting by a few months. OR within 1 month you can have your life back in the same way through dry fasting. There's no way around it, dry fasting is the ultimate healer. High risk, High reward. However, if you approach it correctly the risk factor drops to negligible numbers. - Yannick]
New potential root idea (for some) - Nitric oxide depletion caused by MOUTH BREATHING during sleep resulting in sympathetic nervous system dominance
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the nervous system that plays a crucial role in various cognitive functions, muscle control, and the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Nicotine, the addictive substance found in tobacco products, has a direct connection to acetylcholine because it acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a type of ionotropic receptors found in the central and peripheral nervous system. When acetylcholine binds to these receptors, it triggers the opening of ion channels, allowing ions to flow across the cell membrane and initiating a cellular response.
Nicotine mimics the action of acetylcholine by binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This binding stimulates the release of various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which contribute to the pleasurable and addictive effects of nicotine. Over time, chronic exposure to nicotine can lead to changes in the number and sensitivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, resulting in addiction and altered brain function.
There is a lot of theories surrounding nicotine and the prevention of long covid, and covid in general.
Nicotine patches vs Niacin (nicotinic acid):
Nicotine patches are being used currently (2023) as a new long-haul healing strategy. Unfortunately, it is getting mixed results. Similarly, it makes sense that it is disrupting the acetylcholine neurotransmitter.
Nicotine and nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, share some similarities due to their chemical structures and biological activity.